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Fetal Diagn Ther. 2017;41(4):241-250. doi: 10.1159/000457123. Epub 2017 Mar 2.

Smoking-Induced Changes in the Maternal Immune, Endocrine, and Metabolic Pathways and Their Impact on Fetal Growth: A Topical Review.

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BCNatal, Barcelona Center for Maternal Fetal and Neonatal Medicine (Hospital Sant Joan de Déu and Hospital Clínic), Barcelona, Spain.


Perinatal maternal smoking exposure (PMSE) is one of the major environmental risk factors encountered by the fetus. PMSE is usually associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes that may manifest at different stages of life. Nevertheless, fetal growth restriction is the most common smoking-induced side effect. PMSE induces changes in the maternal multiple organ systems. These alterations may affect placentation, which subsequently affects fetal growth. It is worthy to note, however, that the extent of maternal smoking-induced changes depends mainly on the maternal level of susceptibility. Hence, the perinatal pregnancy outcomes vary depending on the interaction between the triad: the maternal, fetal, and placental modifications, making it more complex. In this review, we try to unveil the effect of smoking-induced maternal changes on the maternal immune, endocrine, and metabolic pathways and their impact on fetal growth.


Endocrine system; Fetal growth restriction; Immune system; Metabolic system; Placenta; Pregnancy; Smoking

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