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J Vet Intern Med. 2017 Mar;31(2):505-512. doi: 10.1111/jvim.14638. Epub 2017 Feb 28.

Clinical Features, Imaging Characteristics, and Long-term Outcome of Dogs with Cranial Meningocele or Meningoencephalocele.

Author information

1
Small Animal Hospital, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK.
2
Small Animal Teaching Hospital, University of Liverpool, Liverpool, UK.
3
PetMedics, Worsley, Manchester, UK.
4
Queen Mother Hospital for Animals, Royal Veterinary College, London, UK.
5
Pathology and Pathogen Biology, Royal Veterinary College, Hawkshead Lane, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9 7TA, UK.
6
Animal Health Trust, Newmarket, UK.
7
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany.
8
Fitzpatrick Referrals, Eashing, Surrey, UK.
9
Hospital Veterinario Valencia Sur, Valencia, Spain.
10
Fundació Hospital Clínic Veterinari, Facultat de Veterinària, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra, Barcelona, Spain.
11
Ludwig-Maximilian University Munich, Munchen, Germany.
12
Vet Extra Neurology, Broadleys Veterinary Hospital, Stirling, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The term meningoencephalocele (MEC) describes a herniation of cerebral tissue and meninges through a defect in the cranium, whereas a meningocele (MC) is a herniation of the meninges alone.

HYPOTHESIS/OBJECTIVES:

To describe the clinical features, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics, and outcomes of dogs with cranial MC and MEC.

ANIMALS:

Twenty-two client-owned dogs diagnosed with cranial MC or MEC.

METHODS:

Multicentric retrospective descriptive study. Clinical records of 13 institutions were reviewed. Signalment, clinical history, neurologic findings and MRI characteristics as well as treatment and outcome were recorded and evaluated.

RESULTS:

Most affected dogs were presented at a young age (median, 6.5 months; range, 1 month - 8 years). The most common presenting complaints were seizures and behavioral abnormalities. Intranasal MEC was more common than parietal MC. Magnetic resonance imaging identified meningeal enhancement of the protruded tissue in 77% of the cases. Porencephaly was seen in all cases with parietal MC. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis identified mild abnormalities in 4 of 11 cases. Surgery was not performed in any affected dog. Seventeen patients were treated medically, and seizures were adequately controlled with anti-epileptic drugs in 10 dogs. Dogs with intranasal MEC and mild neurologic signs had a fair prognosis with medical treatment.

CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE:

Although uncommon, MC and MEC should be considered as a differential diagnosis in young dogs presenting with seizures or alterations in behavior. Medical treatment is a valid option with a fair prognosis when the neurologic signs are mild.

KEYWORDS:

Cerebral malformation; Cranioschisis; Porencephaly; Seizures

PMID:
28247440
PMCID:
PMC5354015
DOI:
10.1111/jvim.14638
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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