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Trends Genet. 2017 Apr;33(4):244-255. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2017.01.010. Epub 2017 Feb 27.

Genomics of Islet (Dys)function and Type 2 Diabetes.

Author information

1
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA.
2
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA; Department of Genetics & Genome Sciences, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06032, USA.
3
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA; Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06032, USA.
4
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomic Medicine, Farmington, CT 06032, USA; Department of Genetics & Genome Sciences, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06032, USA; Institute for Systems Genomics, University of Connecticut, Farmington, CT 06032, USA. Electronic address: michael.stitzel@jax.org.

Abstract

Pancreatic islet dysfunction and beta cell failure are hallmarks of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss how genome-wide association studies (GWASs) and recent developments in islet (epi)genome and transcriptome profiling (particularly single cell analyses) are providing novel insights into the genetic, environmental, and cellular contributions to islet (dys)function and T2DM pathogenesis. Moving forward, study designs that interrogate and model genetic variation [e.g., allelic profiling and (epi)genome editing] will be critical to dissect the molecular genetics of T2DM pathogenesis, to build next-generation cellular and animal models, and to develop precision medicine approaches to detect, treat, and prevent islet (dys)function and T2DM.

KEYWORDS:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D); epigenomics; genomics; pancreatic islets; single cell; transcriptomics

PMID:
28245910
PMCID:
PMC5458785
DOI:
10.1016/j.tig.2017.01.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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