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Chemistry. 2017 Apr 19;23(22):5368-5374. doi: 10.1002/chem.201700150. Epub 2017 Mar 27.

Enhanced Electrochemical Properties of Li3 VO4 with Controlled Oxygen Vacancies as Li-Ion Battery Anode.

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Beijing Institute of Nanoenergy and Nanosystems, Chinese Academy of Sciences, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST), Beijing, 100083, P.R. China.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195-2120, USA.


Li3 VO4 , as a promising intercalation-type anode material for lithium-ion batteries, features a desired discharge potential (ca. 0.5-1.0 V vs. Li/Li+ ) and a good theoretical storage capacity (590 mAh g-1 with three Li+ inserted). However, the poor electrical conductivity of Li3 VO4 hinders its practical application. In the present work, various amounts of oxygen vacancies were introduced in Li3 VO4 through annealing in hydrogen to improve its conductivity. To elucidate the influence of oxygen vacancies on the electrochemical performances of Li3 VO4 , the surface energy of the resulting material was measured with an inverse gas chromatography method. It was found that Li3 VO4 annealed in pure hydrogen at 400 °C for 15 min exhibited a much higher surface energy (60.7 mJ m-2 ) than pristine Li3 VO4 (50.6 mJ m-2 ). The increased surface energy would lower the activation energy of phase transformation during the charge-discharge process, leading to improved electrochemical properties. As a result, the oxygen-deficient Li3 VO4 achieved a significantly improved specific capacity of 495 mAh g-1 at 0.1 Ag-1 (381 mAh g-1 for pristine Li3 VO4 ) and retains 165 mAh g-1 when the current density increases to 8 Ag-1 .


Li3VO4; conducting materials; hydrogen annealing; lithium-ion batteries; oxygen vacancies; surface energy


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