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Nutrition. 2017 Mar;35:61-80. doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2016.10.004. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Arachidonic acid and lipoxinA4 attenuate streptozotocin-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo.

Author information

1
BioScience Research Centre, Department of Medicine, Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital, GVP College of Engineering Campus, Visakhapatnam, India.
2
National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Hyderabad, India.
3
BioScience Research Centre, Department of Medicine, Gayatri Vidya Parishad Hospital, GVP College of Engineering Campus, Visakhapatnam, India; UND Life Sciences, Federal Way, Washington. Electronic address: Undurti@hotmail.com.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to observe whether polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) can protect rat insulinoma (RIN5 F) cells against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis in vitro and type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and type 2 DM (T2DM) in vivo and if so, what would be the mechanism of this action.

METHODS:

RIN5 F cells were used for the in vitro study, whereas the in vivo study was performed in Wistar rats. STZ was used to induce apoptosis of RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo. The effect of PUFAs: γ-linolenic acid (GLA), arachidonic acid (AA) of ω-6 series, and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) of ω-3 series; cyclooxygenase (COX) and lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and DHA, lipoxin A4 (LXA4), and resolvin D2 and protectin, respectively against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and LXA4 against T1- and T2DM in vivo was studied. Changes in the antioxidant content, lipid peroxides, nitric oxide, and expression of PDX1, P65, nuclear factor-κb (NF-κb), and IKB genes in STZ-treated RIN5 F cells in vitro and Nrf2, GLUT2, COX2, iNOS protein levels in the pancreatic tissue of T1- and T2DM and LPCLN2 (lipocalin 2), NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM after LXA4 treatment were studied. Plasma glucose, insulin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α levels also were measured in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM Wistar rats.

RESULTS:

Among all PUFAs tested, AA and EPA are the most effective against STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro. Neither COX nor LOX inhibitors blocked the cytoprotective action of AA in vitro and T1- and T2DM by STZ. LXA4 production by RIN5 F cells in vitro and plasma LXA4 levels in STZ-induced T1- and T2DM animals were decreased by STZ that reverted to normal after AA treatment. AA prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. Antiinflammatory metabolite of AA and LXA4 prevented both T1- and T2DM induced by STZ. The expression of Pdx1, NF-κb, IKB genes in the pancreas and plasma TNF-α levels in T1- and T2DM; Nrf2, Glut2, COX2, and iNOS proteins in pancreatic tissue of T1DM and LPCLN2, NF-κb, IKB I in adipose tissue of T2DM reverted to normal in LXA4-treated animals.

CONCLUSION:

Both AA and LXA4 prevented STZ-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5 F cells in vitro and T1- and T2DM in vivo, suggesting that these two bioactive lipids may function as antidiabetic molecules. AA is beneficial against STZ-induced cytotoxicity and T1- and T2DM by enhancing the production of LXA4.

KEYWORDS:

Antioxidants; Arachidonic acid; Diabetes mellitus; Inflammation; Lipoxin A4; Polyunsaturated fatty acids; Streptozotocin

PMID:
28241993
DOI:
10.1016/j.nut.2016.10.004
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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