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Exp Hematol. 2017 Jun;50:46-52. doi: 10.1016/j.exphem.2017.02.003. Epub 2017 Feb 24.

Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 and mTOR reduces mitochondrial retention and associated ROS levels in the red blood cells of sickle cell disease.

Author information

1
Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA.
2
Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
3
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
4
Research Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
5
Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA; Department of Medicine, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
6
Department of Medicine, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA, USA.
7
Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
8
Department of Pathology, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
9
Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA; Jesse Brown Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Chicago, IL, USA. Electronic address: riversa@uic.edu.

Abstract

Sickle cell disease (SCD), an inherited blood disorder caused by a point mutation that renders hemoglobin susceptible to polymerization when deoxygenated, affects millions of people worldwide. Manifestations of SCD include chronic hemolytic anemia, inflammation, painful vaso-occlusive crises, multisystem organ damage, and reduced life expectancy. Part of SCD pathophysiology is the excessive formation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) in SCD red blood cells (RBCs), which accelerates their hemolysis. Normal RBC precursors eliminate their mitochondria during the terminal differentiation process. Strikingly, we observed an increased percentage of RBCs retaining mitochondria in SCD patient blood samples compared with healthy individuals. In addition, using an experimental SCD mouse model, we demonstrate that excessive levels of ROS in SCD are associated with this abnormal mitochondrial retention. Interestingly, the LSD1 inhibitor, RN-1, and the mitophagy-inducing agent mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, sirolimus, increased RBC lifespan and reduced ROS accumulation in parallel with reducing mitochondria-retaining RBCs in the SCD mouse model. Furthermore, gene expression analysis of SCD mice treated with RN-1 showed increased expression of mitophagy genes. Our findings suggest that reduction of mitochondria-retaining RBCs may provide a new therapeutic approach to preventing excessive ROS in SCD.

PMID:
28238805
PMCID:
PMC6263958
DOI:
10.1016/j.exphem.2017.02.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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