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BJU Int. 2017 Jul;120(1):109-116. doi: 10.1111/bju.13828. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

Prevalence of kidney stones in China: an ultrasonography based cross-sectional study.

Zeng G1,2, Mai Z1,2, Xia S3, Wang Z4, Zhang K5, Wang L6, Long Y7, Ma J8, Li Y9, Wan SP1,2, Wu W1,2, Liu Y1,2, Cui Z1,2, Zhao Z1,2, Qin J1,2, Zeng T1,2, Liu Y1,2, Duan X1,2, Mai X1,2, Yang Z1,2, Kong Z1,2, Zhang T1,2, Cai C1,2, Shao Y3, Yue Z4, Li S5, Ding J6, Tang S7, Ye Z10.

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Department of Urology, Minimally Invasive Surgery Center, The First Affiliated Hospital of Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
Guangdong Key Laboratory of Urology, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
Department of Urology, Shanghai First People Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China.
Department of Urology, Lanzhou University Second Hospital, Lanzhou, Gansu, China.
Department of Urology, Daping Hospital, Research Institute of Surgery Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, China.
Department of Urology, People's Hospital of Changzhi, Changzhi, Shanxi, China.
Department of Urology, Central Hospital of Shaoyang, Shaoyang, Hunan, China.
Department of Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Medicine, Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China.
School of Public Health, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
Department of Urology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei, China.



To investigate the prevalence and associated factors of kidney stones among adults in China.


A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted among individuals aged ≥18 years across China, from May 2013 to July 2014. Participants underwent urinary tract ultrasonographic examinations, completed pre-designed and standardised questionnaires, and provided blood and urine samples for analysis. Kidney stones were defined as particles of ≥4 mm. Prevalence was defined as the proportion of participants with kidney stones and binary logistic regression was used to estimate the associated factors.


A total of 12 570 individuals (45.2% men) with a mean (sd, range) age of 48.8 (15.3, 18-96) years were selected and invited to participate in the study. In all, 9310 (40.7% men) participants completed the investigation, with a response rate of 74.1%. The prevalence of kidney stones was 6.4% [95% confidence interval (CI) 5.9, 6.9], and the age- and sex-adjusted prevalence was 5.8% (95% CI 5.3, 6.3; 6.5% in men and 5.1% in women). Binary logistic regression analysis showed that male gender, rural residency, age, family history of urinary stones, concurrent diabetes mellitus and hyperuricaemia, increased consumption of meat, and excessive sweating were all statistically significantly associated with a greater risk of kidney stones. By contrast, consumption of more tea, legumes, and fermented vinegar was statistically significantly associated with a lesser risk of kidney stone formation.


Kidney stones are common among Chinese adults, with about one in 17 adults affected currently. Some Chinese dietary habits may lower the risk of kidney stone formation.


cross-sectional study; kidney stones; prevalence; ultrasonography

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