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Chin J Dent Res. 2017;20(1):43-51. doi: 10.3290/j.cjdr.a37741.

Salivary IgA, Interleukin-1β and MMP-8 as Salivary Biomarkers in Chronic Periodontitis Patients.



To compare the clinical parameters and levels of salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA), Interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) in patients with moderate to severe chronic periodontitis and in individuals with healthy gingiva.


Levels of clinical parameters plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL) and bleeding on probing (BOP) along with salivary biomarkers salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 were recorded among 50 adults (30 test subjects with moderate to severe generalised chronic periodontitis, constituting group A, and 20 periodontally healthy controls - group B). Clinical evaluation was done before oral prophylaxis, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis, and saliva samples were obtained before and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis. Salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 levels in saliva were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.


In group A, there were highly significant differences in terms of PI, GI, PD, CAL and BOP before oral prophylaxis, and 6 weeks and 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis when compared at these intervals. Differences in their levels in group B were non-significant at such intervals except PI. Mean levels of salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 in chronic periodontitis patients at baseline were significantly higher than in the periodontally healthy group. Their levels in group A decreased significantly 12 weeks after oral prophylaxis, but remained static in group B.


The levels of salivary IgA, IL-1β and MMP-8 showed significant reduction after oral prophylaxis, suggesting that these biomarkers could facilitate the screening, early diagnosis, and management of periodontal disease.

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