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Foods. 2016 Jan 4;5(1). pii: E4. doi: 10.3390/foods5010004.

Changes in Volatile and Non-Volatile Flavor Chemicals of "Valencia" Orange Juice over the Harvest Seasons.

Author information

1
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. jinhe.bai@ars.usda.gov.
2
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. liz.baldwin@ars.usda.gov.
3
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. greg.mccollum@ars.usda.gov.
4
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. anne.plotto@ars.usda.gov.
5
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. john.manthey@ars.usda.gov.
6
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. wwidmer@gmail.com.
7
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. gary.luzio@ars.usda.gov.
8
USDA, ARS, U.S. Horticultural Research Laboratory, 2001 S. Rock Rd, Fort Pierce, FL 34945, USA. Randall.cameron@ars.usda.gov.

Abstract

Florida "Valencia" oranges have a wide harvest window, covering four months after first reaching the commercial maturity. However, the influence of harvest time on juice flavor chemicals is not well documented, with the exception of sugars and acids. Therefore, we investigated the major flavor chemicals, volatile (aroma), non-volatile (taste) and mouth feel attributes, in the two harvest seasons (March to June in 2007 and February to May in 2012). Bitter limonoid compounds, limonin and nomilin, decreased gradually. Out of a total of 94 volatiles, 32 increased, 47 peaked mid to late season, and 15 decreased. Juice insoluble solids and pectin content increased over the season; however, pectin methylesterase activity remained unchanged. Fruit harvested in the earlier months had lower flavor quality. Juice from later harvests had a higher sugar/acid ratio with less bitterness, while, many important aroma compounds occurred at the highest concentrations in the middle to late season, but occurred at lower concentrations at the end of the season. The results provide information to the orange juice processing industry for selection of optimal harvest time and for setting of precise blending strategy.

KEYWORDS:

Citrus sinensis; aroma; bitterness; flavor; limonoid; maturity; orange juice; volatile

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