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Cultur Divers Ethnic Minor Psychol. 2017 Jul;23(3):335-347. doi: 10.1037/cdp0000142. Epub 2017 Feb 23.

Familial ethnic socialization, gender role attitudes, and ethnic identity development in Mexican-origin early adolescents.

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Department of Educational Psychology, University of Texas at Austin.



This study examined the relations between familial ethnic socialization and ethnic identity development in 438 Mexican-origin (n = 242 boys and n = 196 girls) preadolescents. In addition, machismo and marianismo gender role attitudes were examined as potential mediators in this link.


Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) of the Familial Ethnic Socialization Scale (FES), Machismo Measure (MM), Marianismo Beliefs Scale (MBS), and the Ethnic Identity Brief Scale (EISB) were conducted to test the factor structure with a preadolescent Mexican-origin sample. Separate path analyses of analytic models were then performed on boys and girls.


Results of the CFAs for survey measures revealed that for the FES, a 1-factor version indicated acceptable fit; for the MM, the original 2-factor structure indicated acceptable model fit; for the MBS, a revised 3-factor version indicated acceptable model fit; and, for the EISB, the affirmation and resolution dimensions showed acceptable fit. Among boys, FES was significantly and positively linked to caballerismo, and EISB affirmation and resolution; furthermore, the links between FES and EISB affirmation and resolution were indirectly connected by caballerismo. In addition, traditional machismo was negatively linked to EISB affirmation, and caballerismo was positively linked to EISB affirmation and resolution. Among girls, FES was significantly and positively related to the MBS-virtuous/chaste pillar, and EISB affirmation and resolution. The MBS-subordinate to others pillar was negatively linked to EISB affirmation.


This study underscores the importance of FES and positive gender role attitudes in the link to ethnic identity development among Mexican-origin preadolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record

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