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Sci Transl Med. 2017 Feb 22;9(378). pii: eaah4680. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4680.

Antimicrobials from human skin commensal bacteria protect against Staphylococcus aureus and are deficient in atopic dermatitis.

Author information

1
Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA.
2
Collaborative Mass Spectrometry Innovation Center, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA.
3
Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA.
4
Rho Federal Systems Division Inc., Chapel Hill, NC 27517, USA.
5
Division of Allergy and Immunology, Department of Pediatrics, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO 80206, USA.
6
Departments of Chemistry, Biochemistry and Pharmacology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA.
7
Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14611, USA.
8
Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92092, USA. rgallo@ucsd.edu.

Abstract

The microbiome can promote or disrupt human health by influencing both adaptive and innate immune functions. We tested whether bacteria that normally reside on human skin participate in host defense by killing Staphylococcus aureus, a pathogen commonly found in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) and an important factor that exacerbates this disease. High-throughput screening for antimicrobial activity against S. aureus was performed on isolates of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) collected from the skin of healthy and AD subjects. CoNS strains with antimicrobial activity were common on the normal population but rare on AD subjects. A low frequency of strains with antimicrobial activity correlated with colonization by S. aureus The antimicrobial activity was identified as previously unknown antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) produced by CoNS species including Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus hominis These AMPs were strain-specific, highly potent, selectively killed S. aureus, and synergized with the human AMP LL-37. Application of these CoNS strains to mice confirmed their defense function in vivo relative to application of nonactive strains. Strikingly, reintroduction of antimicrobial CoNS strains to human subjects with AD decreased colonization by S. aureus These findings show how commensal skin bacteria protect against pathogens and demonstrate how dysbiosis of the skin microbiome can lead to disease.

PMID:
28228596
PMCID:
PMC5600545
DOI:
10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4680
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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