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Mol Cell Biochem. 2017 Apr;428(1-2):129-137. doi: 10.1007/s11010-016-2923-7. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Anti-neuroinflammatory effects of grossamide from hemp seed via suppression of TLR-4-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated BV2 microglia cells.

Author information

1
Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China.
2
School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, Sansom Institute for Health Research, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA, 5000, Australia.
3
Department of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan, 250100, People's Republic of China.
4
Department of Natural Product Chemistry, Key Lab of Chemical Biology of Ministry of Education, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, 250012, People's Republic of China. fanpeihong@sdu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Grossamide, a representative lignanamide in hemp seed, has been reported to possess potential anti-inflammatory effects. However, the potential anti-neuroinflammatory effects and underlying mechanisms of action of grossamide are still unclear. Therefore, the present study investigated the possible effects and underlying mechanisms of grossamide against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory response in BV2 microglia cells. BV2 microglia cells were pre-treated with various concentrations of grossamide before being stimulated with LPS to induce inflammation. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined using the enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) and mRNA expression levels were measured by real-time PCR. The translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and contribution of TLR4-mediated NF-κB activation on inflammatory effects were evaluated by immunostaining and Western blot analysis. This study demonstrated that grossamide significantly inhibited the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin 6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and decreased the level of LPS-mediated IL-6 and TNF-α mRNA. In addition, it significantly reduced the phosphorylation levels of NF-κB subunit p65 in a concentration-dependent manner and suppressed translocation of NF-κB p65 into the nucleus. Furthermore, grossamide markedly attenuated the LPS-induced expression of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). Taken together, these data suggest that grossamide could be a potential therapeutic candidate for inhibiting neuroinflammation in neurodegenerative diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-neuroinflammatory; BV2 microglia cells; Grossamide; Hemp seed; Lignanamide; NF-κB

PMID:
28224333
DOI:
10.1007/s11010-016-2923-7
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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