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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2017 Jun;26(6):876-885. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-16-0762-T. Epub 2017 Feb 21.

Young Adult and Usual Adult Body Mass Index and Multiple Myeloma Risk: A Pooled Analysis in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium (IMMC).

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Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland.
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel University Dornsife School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Division of Hematology and Hematologic Malignancies, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.
Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency and School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Coulmbia, Canada.
German Cancer Center, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, Heidelberg, Germany.
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
Program in Epidemiology, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.
Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington School of Public Health, Seattle, Washington.
Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, New York.
International Prevention Research Institute, Lyon, France.
Department of Pathology and the Cancer Control and Population Sciences Program, UAB Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama.
Department of Public Health, Occupational Health Section, University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.
Unit of Infections and Cancer, Cancer Epidemiology Research Programme, Catalan Institute of Oncology, IDIBELL, Barcelona, Spain.
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
Cancer Epidemiology Centre, Cancer Council Victoria, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Department of Biostatistics, Melbourne School of Population and Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
Registry of Hematological malignancies of Côte d'Or, University of Burgundy, and University Hospital, Dijon, France.
Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.
Center for Chronic Immunodeficiency, Faculty of Medicine, University of Freiburg, Freiburg, Germany.
Ireland School of Nursing and Human Sciences, Dublin City University, Glasnevin, Dublin, Ireland.
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
Department of Pathology, City of Hope, Duarte, California.
Department of Surgery, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, Connecticut.


Background: Multiple myeloma risk increases with higher adult body mass index (BMI). Emerging evidence also supports an association of young adult BMI with multiple myeloma. We undertook a pooled analysis of eight case-control studies to further evaluate anthropometric multiple myeloma risk factors, including young adult BMI.Methods: We conducted multivariable logistic regression analysis of usual adult anthropometric measures of 2,318 multiple myeloma cases and 9,609 controls, and of young adult BMI (age 25 or 30 years) for 1,164 cases and 3,629 controls.Results: In the pooled sample, multiple myeloma risk was positively associated with usual adult BMI; risk increased 9% per 5-kg/m2 increase in BMI [OR, 1.09; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04-1.14; P = 0.007]. We observed significant heterogeneity by study design (P = 0.04), noting the BMI-multiple myeloma association only for population-based studies (Ptrend = 0.0003). Young adult BMI was also positively associated with multiple myeloma (per 5-kg/m2; OR, 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P = 0.0002). Furthermore, we observed strong evidence of interaction between younger and usual adult BMI (Pinteraction <0.0001); we noted statistically significant associations with multiple myeloma for persons overweight (25-<30 kg/m2) or obese (30+ kg/m2) in both younger and usual adulthood (vs. individuals consistently <25 kg/m2), but not for those overweight or obese at only one time period.Conclusions: BMI-associated increases in multiple myeloma risk were highest for individuals who were overweight or obese throughout adulthood.Impact: These findings provide the strongest evidence to date that earlier and later adult BMI may increase multiple myeloma risk and suggest that healthy BMI maintenance throughout life may confer an added benefit of multiple myeloma prevention. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(6); 876-85. ©2017 AACR.

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