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Arch Esp Urol. 2017 Jan;70(1):40-50.

[Etiopathogenic factors of the different types of urinary litiasis.]

[Article in Spanish]

Author information

1
Unidad de Urolitiasis y Endourología. Servicio de Urología. Complejo Hospitalario Universitario Granada. España.

Abstract

In this review, we analyze the etiopathogenic principles of urinary lithiasis formation. In the kidney, calcifications that may cause renal lithiasis are produced as a consequence of processes that injury the urothelium at the papilla and Bellini's ducts. With the improvement of imaging techniques, mainly micro CT scan, it is possible to detect them and we may be able to anticipate to the formation of lithiasis. As we well know, there are different factors that influence the formation of the calculi depending on their composition. In calcium lithiasis it is key to review the modification of the categories of hypercalciuria, we currently distinguish two types instead of three, thanks to the fasting calcium/ creatinine ratio, differentiating absorptive hypercalciuria and fasting hypercalciuria. In the fasting hypercalciuria, it is important to emphasize the relationship between this factor and the loss of bone mineral density in patients with recurrent renal calcic lithiasis, so that in this kind of patients it is compulsory the study of bone metabolism by bone remodelling markers and bone densitometry. Regarding the other factors that participate in the formation of calcium lithiasis we should specially emphasize on hypercalciuria and its growing increase because of its relationship with obesity and metabolic syndrome, as well as hipocitraturia, present in an important percentage of patients and related in some cases with metabolic acidosis and osteopenia-osteoporosis too. In relation to uric acid lithiasis it should be highlighted that urinary pH is the most determinant factor and, therefore, its control and modifications would be paramount for prevention of this type of lithiasis. In the infectious lithiasis, the presence of germs that split urea is mandatory. They generate ammonia ions with the ability to injure the urothelium and to form magnesium ammonium phosphate lithiasis mainly. Regarding cystine lithiasis, rare, it was classically divided in three types and now passed to be classified in type A and B depending on the muted gene, and it is more useful to perform direct 24-hour urine measurement than screening tests which have low sensitivity. In general, we tried to give a comprehensive view of the various types of lithiasis emphasizing the most interesting clinical points for the urologist.

PMID:
28221141
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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