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J Basic Microbiol. 2017 May;57(5):402-412. doi: 10.1002/jobm.201600596. Epub 2017 Feb 20.

Metal induced changes in trivalent chromium resistant Alcaligenes faecalis VITSIM2.

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School of Bioscience and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, India.


The changes induced in bacterial strains under stress conditions provide an insight into metal resistance strategies. Trivalent chromium resistant bacterium were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and designated as Alcaligenes faecalis VITSIM2. The growth pattern was monitored. The organism also showed resistance to copper, cadmium, and certain antibiotics. The differentially expressed proteins in SDS PAGE were identified by mass spectrometry as flagellin and 50S ribosomal L36 protein. The morphological changes were identified by scanning electron microscopy. The changes in the cell wall content were estimated by peptidoglycan analysis and transformation of phosphates was detected by 31 P NMR. Flow cytometry was employed to measure the membrane integrity, esterase activity and intracellular pH. In conclusion spectrum of proteomic, physiological, and morphological alterations was observed that aid the organism to overcome chromium stress.


Alcaligenes faecalis; flagellin; peptidoglycan; trivalent chromium

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