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Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 20;7:42833. doi: 10.1038/srep42833.

Control of terahertz nonlinear transmission with electrically gated graphene metadevices.

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Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-751, Republic of Korea.
Center for Quantum Beam-based Radiation Research, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon 305-353, Republic of Korea.
Department of Physics and Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749, Korea.
The Blackett Laboratory, Department of Physics, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdom.
Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), Daejeon 305-751, Republic of Korea.


Graphene, which is a two-dimensional crystal of carbon atoms arranged in a hexagonal lattice, has attracted a great amount of attention due to its outstanding mechanical, thermal and electronic properties. Moreover, graphene shows an exceptionally strong tunable light-matter interaction that depends on the Fermi level - a function of chemical doping and external gate voltage - and the electromagnetic resonance provided by intentionally engineered structures. In the optical regime, the nonlinearities of graphene originated from the Pauli blocking have already been exploited for mode-locking device applications in ultrafast laser technology, whereas nonlinearities in the terahertz regime, which arise from a reduction in conductivity due to carrier heating, have only recently been confirmed experimentally. Here, we investigated two key factors for controlling nonlinear interactions of graphene with an intense terahertz field. The induced transparencies of graphene can be controlled effectively by engineering meta-atoms and/or changing the number of charge carriers through electrical gating. Additionally, nonlinear phase changes of the transmitted terahertz field can be observed by introducing the resonances of the meta-atoms.

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