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Cell. 2017 Feb 23;168(5):928-943.e11. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.022. Epub 2017 Feb 16.

Mining the Human Gut Microbiota for Immunomodulatory Organisms.

Author information

1
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
2
UCB Pharma, Slough, Berkshire SL1 3WE, UK.
3
Division of Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. Electronic address: dennis_kasper@hms.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Within the human gut reside diverse microbes coexisting with the host in a mutually advantageous relationship. Evidence has revealed the pivotal role of the gut microbiota in shaping the immune system. To date, only a few of these microbes have been shown to modulate specific immune parameters. Herein, we broadly identify the immunomodulatory effects of phylogenetically diverse human gut microbes. We monocolonized mice with each of 53 individual bacterial species and systematically analyzed host immunologic adaptation to colonization. Most microbes exerted several specialized, complementary, and redundant transcriptional and immunomodulatory effects. Surprisingly, these were independent of microbial phylogeny. Microbial diversity in the gut ensures robustness of the microbiota's ability to generate a consistent immunomodulatory impact, serving as a highly important epigenetic system. This study provides a foundation for investigation of gut microbiota-host mutualism, highlighting key players that could identify important therapeutics.

KEYWORDS:

gnotobiotic; gut bacteria; immunomodulation; immunoprofiling; innate and adaptive immunity; microbiome

PMID:
28215708
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.022
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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