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Genes (Basel). 2017 Feb 16;8(2). pii: E72. doi: 10.3390/genes8020072.

Type 1 Diabetes Candidate Genes Linked to Pancreatic Islet Cell Inflammation and Beta-Cell Apoptosis.

Author information

1
Copenhagen Diabetes Research Center (CPH-DIRECT), Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte, Herlev 2730, Denmark. joachim.stoerling.01@regionh.dk.
2
Copenhagen Diabetes Research Center (CPH-DIRECT), Department of Pediatrics, University Hospital Herlev and Gentofte, Herlev 2730, Denmark. flemming.pociot.01@regionh.dk.
3
Department of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen 2200, Denmark. flemming.pociot.01@regionh.dk.

Abstract

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic immune-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. Susceptibility to the disease is the result of complex interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 50 genetic regions that affect the risk of developing T1D. Most of these susceptibility loci, however, harbor several genes, and the causal variant(s) and gene(s) for most of the loci remain to be established. A significant part of the genes located in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human islets and β cells and mounting evidence suggests that some of these genes modulate the β-cell response to the immune system and viral infection and regulate apoptotic β-cell death. Here, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on pancreatic islet cell inflammation and β-cell apoptosis.

KEYWORDS:

GWAS; apoptosis; beta-cell; gene expression

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