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Nat Commun. 2017 Feb 17;8:14482. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14482.

Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals.

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School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
Manufacturing Business Unit, CSIRO, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
ARC Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
ARC Centre for Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
Department of Chemical and Bimolecular Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905, USA.
Department of Chemistry &Biochemistry and Materials Science &Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.


A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

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