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Nat Commun. 2017 Feb 17;8:14482. doi: 10.1038/ncomms14482.

Wafer-scale two-dimensional semiconductors from printed oxide skin of liquid metals.

Author information

1
School of Engineering, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
2
Manufacturing Business Unit, CSIRO, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
3
ARC Centre of Excellence in Exciton Science, School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
4
ARC Centre for Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP), School of Science, RMIT University, Melbourne, Victoria 3001, Australia.
5
Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3168, Australia.
6
Department of Chemical and Bimolecular Engineering, NC State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27695-7905, USA.
7
Department of Chemistry &Biochemistry and Materials Science &Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095, USA.

Abstract

A variety of deposition methods for two-dimensional crystals have been demonstrated; however, their wafer-scale deposition remains a challenge. Here we introduce a technique for depositing and patterning of wafer-scale two-dimensional metal chalcogenide compounds by transforming the native interfacial metal oxide layer of low melting point metal precursors (group III and IV) in liquid form. In an oxygen-containing atmosphere, these metals establish an atomically thin oxide layer in a self-limiting reaction. The layer increases the wettability of the liquid metal placed on oxygen-terminated substrates, leaving the thin oxide layer behind. In the case of liquid gallium, the oxide skin attaches exclusively to a substrate and is then sulfurized via a relatively low temperature process. By controlling the surface chemistry of the substrate, we produce large area two-dimensional semiconducting GaS of unit cell thickness (∼1.5 nm). The presented deposition and patterning method offers great commercial potential for wafer-scale processes.

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