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Matern Child Health J. 2017 Jul;21(7):1573-1580. doi: 10.1007/s10995-017-2289-9.

Gross Motor Development in Children Aged 3-5 Years, United States 2012.

Author information

1
Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Road, Hyattsville, MD, 20782, USA. bkit@cdc.gov.
2
Division of Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys, National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 3311 Toledo Road, Hyattsville, MD, 20782, USA.
3
Movement Science Program, Center on Physical Activity & Health in Pediatric Disabilities, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, USA.

Abstract

Objective Gross motor development in early childhood is important in fostering greater interaction with the environment. The purpose of this study is to describe gross motor skills among US children aged 3-5 years using the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD-2). Methods We used 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) data, which included TGMD-2 scores obtained according to an established protocol. Outcome measures included locomotor and object control raw and age-standardized scores. Means and standard errors were calculated for demographic and weight status with SUDAAN using sample weights to calculate nationally representative estimates, and survey design variables to account for the complex sampling methods. Results The sample included 339 children aged 3-5 years. As expected, locomotor and object control raw scores increased with age. Overall mean standardized scores for locomotor and object control were similar to the mean value previously determined using a normative sample. Girls had a higher mean locomotor, but not mean object control, standardized score than boys (pā€‰<ā€‰0.05). However, the mean locomotor standardized scores for both boys and girls fell into the range categorized as "average." There were no other differences by age, race/Hispanic origin, weight status, or income in either of the subtest standardized scores (pā€‰>ā€‰0.05). Conclusions In a nationally representative sample of US children aged 3-5 years, TGMD-2 mean locomotor and object control standardized scores were similar to the established mean. These results suggest that standardized gross motor development among young children generally did not differ by demographic or weight status.

KEYWORDS:

Child; Child development; Health surveys; Preschool; United States/epidemiology

PMID:
28197817
DOI:
10.1007/s10995-017-2289-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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