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PLoS One. 2017 Feb 14;12(2):e0171108. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171108. eCollection 2017.

A massive experiment on choice blindness in political decisions: Confidence, confabulation, and unconscious detection of self-deception.

Author information

Laboratorio de Neurociencia, Universidad Torcuato Di Tella, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
El Gato y La Caja, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Universidad de San Andrés, Buenos Aires, Argentina.
Universidad de Vigo, Vigo, España.


We implemented a Choice Blindness Paradigm containing political statements in Argentina to reveal the existence of categorical ranges of introspective reports, identified by confidence and agreement levels, separating easy from very hard to manipulate decisions. CBP was implemented in both live and web-based forms. Importantly, and contrary to what was observed in Sweden, we did not observe changes in voting intentions. Also, confidence levels in the manipulated replies where significantly lower than in non-manipulated cases even in undetected manipulations. We name this phenomenon unconscious detection of self-deception. Results also show that females are more difficult to manipulate than men.

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Conflict of interest statement

Some authors are part of a science popularization project named "El Gato y La Caja" ( This does not alter our adherence to PLOS ONE policies on sharing data and materials. “El Gato y la Caja” is not a commercial company and does not receive any financial support. It is supported by its members. It is the name we give to a group of researchers interested in the public communication of science.

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