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PLoS One. 2017 Feb 13;12(2):e0171009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171009. eCollection 2017.

Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with depression in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
2
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 PLUS, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Depression is reported to be the most common psychological problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several studies have reported that lower levels of serum vitamin D are significantly associated with depression. Both vitamin D deficiency and depression are prevalent in patients with CKD, yet the relationship between these two factors remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and depression among CKD patients.

METHODS:

Totally, 21,257 individuals who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, VI) from 2010-2014 were screened for the study; 533 CKD patients were included. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] ≤10 ng/mL. Patients were divided into vitamin D deficient or sufficient groups. Depression was screened for using the Korean version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form. The association between vitamin D deficiency and depression was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis.

RESULTS:

The mean participant age was 70.1±9.4 years; 262 patients (49.2%) were male. The median 25(OH)D3 level was 19.1±6.9 ng/mL. The prevalence of depression was higher in CKD patients than in the general population (14.3 vs. 11.1%, P = 0.03). Additionally, the prevalence of depression was significantly higher in CKD patients with (vs. without) vitamin D deficiency (32.5% vs. 50.0%, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio, 6.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-8.75; P = 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Depression was highly prevalent in CKD patients, in whom vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression. Therefore, management of vitamin D deficiency might help prevent depression in CKD patients.

PMID:
28192445
PMCID:
PMC5305247
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0171009
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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