Send to

Choose Destination
PLoS One. 2017 Feb 13;12(2):e0171009. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171009. eCollection 2017.

Vitamin D deficiency is significantly associated with depression in patients with chronic kidney disease.

Author information

Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.
Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Severance Biomedical Science Institute, Brain Korea 21 PLUS, Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea.



Depression is reported to be the most common psychological problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Several studies have reported that lower levels of serum vitamin D are significantly associated with depression. Both vitamin D deficiency and depression are prevalent in patients with CKD, yet the relationship between these two factors remains poorly understood. This study aimed to investigate the association between vitamin D levels and depression among CKD patients.


Totally, 21,257 individuals who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V, VI) from 2010-2014 were screened for the study; 533 CKD patients were included. Vitamin D deficiency was defined as serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] ≤10 ng/mL. Patients were divided into vitamin D deficient or sufficient groups. Depression was screened for using the Korean version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview-Short Form. The association between vitamin D deficiency and depression was evaluated by multivariate logistic regression analysis.


The mean participant age was 70.1±9.4 years; 262 patients (49.2%) were male. The median 25(OH)D3 level was 19.1±6.9 ng/mL. The prevalence of depression was higher in CKD patients than in the general population (14.3 vs. 11.1%, P = 0.03). Additionally, the prevalence of depression was significantly higher in CKD patients with (vs. without) vitamin D deficiency (32.5% vs. 50.0%, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression after adjusting for confounding factors (adjusted odds ratio, 6.15; 95% confidence interval, 2.02-8.75; P = 0.001).


Depression was highly prevalent in CKD patients, in whom vitamin D deficiency was a significant independent predictor of depression. Therefore, management of vitamin D deficiency might help prevent depression in CKD patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Public Library of Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center