Format

Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Chemosphere. 2017 Jan 31;174:478-489. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.01.145. [Epub ahead of print]

Carotenoid glycosides from cyanobacteria are teratogenic in the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo model.

Author information

  • 1Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Marine Science Program, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA. Electronic address: ajaja001@fiu.edu.
  • 2Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address: ksanc023@fiu.edu.
  • 3Department of Biological Sciences, Florida International University, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199, USA. Electronic address: gantarm@fiu.edu.
  • 4Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33146, USA. Electronic address: pgibbs@rsmas.miami.edu.
  • 5Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Miami, 4600 Rickenbacker Causeway, Miami, FL 33146, USA. Electronic address: mschmale@rsmas.miami.edu.
  • 6Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Marine Science Program, Florida International University, 3000 NE 151st Street, North Miami, FL 33181, USA. Electronic address: berryj@fiu.edu.

Abstract

Toxigenicity of cyanobacteria is widely associated with production of several well-described toxins that pose recognized threats to human and ecosystem health as part of both freshwater eutrophication, and episodic blooms in freshwater and coastal habitats. However, a preponderance of evidence indicates contribution of additional bioactive, and potentially toxic, metabolites. In the present study, the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo was used as a model of vertebrate development to identify, and subsequently isolate and characterize, teratogenic metabolites from two representative strains of C. raciborskii. Using this approach, three chemically related carotenoids - and specifically the xanthophyll glycosides, myxol 2'-glycoside (1), 4-ketomyxol 2'-glycoside (2) and 4-hydroxymyxol 2'-glycoside (3) - which are, otherwise, well known pigment molecules from cyanobacteria were isolated as potently teratogenic compounds. Carotenoids are recognized "pro-retinoids" with retinoic acid, as a metabolic product of the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids, established as both key mediator of embryo development and, consequently, a potent teratogen. Accordingly, a comparative toxicological study of chemically diverse carotenoids, as well as apocarotenoids and retinoids, was undertaken. Based on this, a working model of the developmental toxicity of carotenoids as pro-retinoids is proposed, and the teratogenicity of these widespread metabolites is discussed in relation to possible impacts on aquatic vertebrate populations.

KEYWORDS:

Carotenoid; Cyanobacteria; Myxoxanthophyll; Retinoid; Teratogenicity; Zebrafish

[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

0 comments
How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center