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J Gastroenterol. 2017 Apr;52(4):401-406. doi: 10.1007/s00535-017-1314-5. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Current status of achalasia management: a review on diagnosis and treatment.

Author information

1
Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Koto-Toyosu Hospital, 5-1-38 Toyosu, Koto-Ku, Tokyo, 135-8577, Japan. jetuason@yahoo.com.
2
Digestive Disease Center, Showa University Koto-Toyosu Hospital, 5-1-38 Toyosu, Koto-Ku, Tokyo, 135-8577, Japan.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Achalasia is a rare esophageal motility disorder that is characterized by loss of peristalsis and failure of relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES), particularly during swallowing. This review focuses on the diagnosis of esophageal motility disorders as defined by the Chicago Classification ver 3.0, and presents management options with regard to per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) as the treatment of choice.

METHODS:

A concise review of literature was performed for articles related to the management of achalasia, and this was contrasted with our institution's current practice.

RESULTS:

Achalasia is still incompletely understood, and management is focused on establishing a proper diagnosis, and relieving the obstructive symptoms.

CONCLUSIONS:

Achalasia should be considered when dysphagia is present, and not otherwise caused by an obstruction or inflammation, and when criteria is met as per the Chicago Classification ver 3.0. Lowering LES tone and disruption of LES can be accomplished by various methods, most notably pneumatic balloon dilatation and surgical myotomy. POEM has been gaining momentum as a first line therapy for achalasia symptoms, and can be considered an important tool for motility disorders of the esophagus.

KEYWORDS:

Achalasia; Dysphagia; Esophageal motility disorders; Peroral endoscopic myotomy

PMID:
28188367
DOI:
10.1007/s00535-017-1314-5
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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