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Cell. 2017 Feb 9;168(4):613-628. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.018.

Clonal Heterogeneity and Tumor Evolution: Past, Present, and the Future.

Author information

1
Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; Translational Cancer Therapeutics Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, London NW1 1AT, UK.
2
Cancer Research UK Lung Cancer Centre of Excellence, University College London Cancer Institute, Paul O'Gorman Building, 72 Huntley Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK; Translational Cancer Therapeutics Laboratory, The Francis Crick Institute, 1 Midland Rd, London NW1 1AT, UK; Department of Medical Oncology, University College London Hospitals, 235 Euston Rd, Fitzrovia, London NW1 2BU, UK. Electronic address: charles.swanton@crick.ac.uk.

Abstract

Intratumor heterogeneity, which fosters tumor evolution, is a key challenge in cancer medicine. Here, we review data and technologies that have revealed intra-tumor heterogeneity across cancer types and the dynamics, constraints, and contingencies inherent to tumor evolution. We emphasize the importance of macro-evolutionary leaps, often involving large-scale chromosomal alterations, in driving tumor evolution and metastasis and consider the role of the tumor microenvironment in engendering heterogeneity and drug resistance. We suggest that bold approaches to drug development, harnessing the adaptive properties of the immune-microenvironment while limiting those of the tumor, combined with advances in clinical trial-design, will improve patient outcome.

PMID:
28187284
DOI:
10.1016/j.cell.2017.01.018
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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