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PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171291. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0171291. eCollection 2017.

Phylogenomic analyses reveal the diversity of laccase-coding genes in Fonsecaea genomes.

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CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Utrecht, Netherlands.
Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Department of Basic Pathology, Federal University of ParanĂ¡ State, Curitiba, PR, Brazil.
Department of Dermatology, Third Affiliated Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.


The genus Fonsecaea comprises black yeast-like fungi of clinical relevance, including etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis and cerebral phaeohyphomycosis. Presence of melanin and assimilation of monoaromatic hydrocarbons and alkylbenzenes have been proposed as virulence factors. Multicopper oxidase (MCO) is a family of enzymes including laccases, ferroxidases and ascorbate oxidases which are able to catalyze the oxidation of various aromatic organic compounds with the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Additionally, laccases are required for the production of fungal melanins, a cell-wall black pigment recognized as a key polymer for pathogenicity and extremotolerance in black yeast-like fungi. Although the activity of laccase enzymes has previously been reported in many wood-rotting fungi, the diversity of laccase genes in Fonsecaea has not yet been assessed. In this study, we identified and characterized laccase-coding genes and determined their genomic location in five clinical and environmental Fonsecaea species. The identification of laccases sensu stricto will provide insights into carbon acquisition strategies as well as melanin production in Fonsecaea.

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