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Atten Percept Psychophys. 2017 May;79(4):1123-1131. doi: 10.3758/s13414-017-1292-y.

The time course of intentional binding.

Author information

1
Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany, 79085, Freiburg. ruess@psychologie.uni-freiburg.de.
2
Cognition, Action, and Sustainability Unit, Department of Psychology, Albert-Ludwigs-University of Freiburg, Germany, 79085, Freiburg.

Abstract

Stimuli caused by actions (i.e., effects) are perceived earlier than stimuli not caused by actions. This phenomenon is termed intentional binding (IB) and serves as implicit measure of sense of agency. We investigated the influence of effect delay and temporal predictability on IB, operationalized as the bias to perceive the effect as temporally shifted toward the action. For short delays, IB increased with delay (Experiment 1: 200 ms, 250 ms, 300 ms). The initial increase declined for longer delays (Experiment 2: 100 ms, 250 ms, 400 ms). This extends previous findings showing IB to decrease with increasing delays for delay ranges of 250 ms to 650 ms. Further, the hypothesis that IB, that is, sense of agency, might be maximal for different delays depending on the specific characteristics and context of action and effect, has important implications for human-machine interfaces.

KEYWORDS:

Action-effect interval; Effect delay; Intentional binding; Sense of agency; Temporal binding; Temporal predictability

PMID:
28185229
DOI:
10.3758/s13414-017-1292-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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