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Toxicol Sci. 2017 May 1;157(1):196-210. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfx030.

Editor's Highlight: Periodic Exposure to Smartphone-Mimic Low-Luminance Blue Light Induces Retina Damage Through Bcl-2/BAX-Dependent Apoptosis.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
2
Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
3
Department of Physiology, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
4
Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.
5
Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan.
6
Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC.
7
Department of Ophthalmology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan.

Abstract

Blue light-induced phototoxicity plays an important role in retinal degeneration and might cause damage as a consequence of smartphone dependency. Here, we investigated the effects of periodic exposure to blue light-emitting diode in a cell model and a rat retinal damage model. Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells were subjected to blue light in vitro and the effects of blue light on activation of key apoptotic pathways were examined by measuring the levels of Bcl-2, Bax, Fas ligand (FasL), Fas-associated protein with death domain (FADD), and caspase-3 protein. Blue light treatment of RPE cells increased Bax, cleaved caspase-3, FasL, and FADD expression, inhibited Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL accumulation, and inhibited Bcl-2/Bax association. A rat model of retinal damage was developed with or without continuous or periodic exposure to blue light for 28 days. In this rat model of retinal damage, periodic blue light exposure caused fundus damage, decreased total retinal thickness, caused atrophy of photoreceptors, and injured neuron transduction in the retina.

KEYWORDS:

Bax; Bcl-2; FasL; age-related macular degeneration; apoptosis; blue light; caspase-3

PMID:
28184904
DOI:
10.1093/toxsci/kfx030
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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