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Metabolism. 2017 Mar;68:43-54. doi: 10.1016/j.metabol.2016.11.010. Epub 2016 Nov 25.

Controversies in the management of hyperglycaemic emergencies in adults with diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal. Electronic address: mkcardoso@gmail.com.
2
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.
3
Department of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Centro Hospitalar e Universitário de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal; Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal.

Abstract

Hyperglycaemic emergencies are associated with significant morbi-mortality and healthcare costs. Management consists on fluid replacement, insulin therapy, and electrolyte correction. However, some areas of patient management remain debatable. In patients without respiratory failure or haemodynamic instability, arterial and venous pH and bicarbonate measurements are comparable. Fluid choice varies upon replenishment phase and patient's condition. If patient is severely hypovolaemic, normal saline solution should be the first option. However, if patient has mild/moderate dehydration, fluid choice must take in consideration sodium concentration. Insulin therapy should be guided by β-hydroxybutyrate normalization and not by blood glucose. Variations of conventional insulin infusion protocols emerged recently. Priming dose of insulin may not be required, and fixed rate insulin infusion represents the best option to suppress hepatic glucose production, ketogenesis, and lipolysis. Concomitant administration of basal insulin analogues with regular insulin infusion accelerates ketoacidosis resolution and prevents rebound hyperglycaemia. Simpler protocols using subcutaneous rapid-acting insulin analogues for mild/moderate diabetic ketoacidosis treatment have proven to be safe and effective, but further studies are required to confirm these results. Treatment with bicarbonate, phosphate, and low-molecular-weight heparin is still disputable, and randomized controlled trials are urgently needed to optimize patient management and decrease the morbi-mortality of hyperglycaemic emergencies.

KEYWORDS:

Acute diabetes complications; Diabetes; Diabetic ketoacidosis; Hyperglycaemic emergencies; Hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome

PMID:
28183452
DOI:
10.1016/j.metabol.2016.11.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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