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Br J Nutr. 2017 Feb;117(3):395-402. doi: 10.1017/S0007114516004463. Epub 2017 Feb 10.

Effects of almond consumption on the post-lunch dip and long-term cognitive function in energy-restricted overweight and obese adults.

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Department of Nutrition Science,Purdue University,West Lafayette,IN 47907,USA.


The post-lunch dip in cognition is a well-established phenomenon of decreased alertness, memory and vigilance after lunch consumption. Lunch composition reportedly influences the post-lunch dip. Moreover, dieting is associated with cognitive function impairments. The negative effects of dieting have been reversed with nut-supplemented diets. The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the acute effect of an almond-enriched high-fat lunch or high-carbohydrate lunch on the post-lunch decline in cognitive function, and (2) evaluate the effects of chronic almond consumption as part of an energy-restricted diet on the memory and attention domains of cognitive function. In total, eighty-six overweight and obese adults were randomised to consume either an almond-enriched diet (AED) or a nut-free control diet (NFD) over a 12-week weight loss intervention. Participants were also randomised to receive either an almond-enriched high-fat lunch (A-HFL) (>55 % energy from fat, almonds contributing 70-75 % energy) or a high-carbohydrate lunch (HCL) (>85 % energy from carbohydrates) at the beginning and end of the weight loss intervention. Memory and attention performance indices decreased after lunch consumption (P<0·001). The A-HFL group ameliorated the decline in memory scores by 57·7 % compared with the HCL group (P=0·004). Both lunch groups had similar declines in attention. Moreover, memory and attention performance indices increased after the 12-week intervention period (P<0·05) with no difference between the AED and NFD groups. In conclusion, almond consumption at a midday meal can reduce the post-lunch dip in memory. However, long-term almond consumption may not further improve cognitive function outcomes in a weight loss intervention.


A-HFL almond-enriched high-fat lunch group; AED almond-enriched diet; CP concentration performance; HCL high-carbohydrate lunch group; NFD nut-free diet; TN quantitative performance; TNE qualitative performance; VLR verbal list recognition; Almonds; Cognitive function; Energy restriction; Nuts; Post-lunch dip

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