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Int Forum Allergy Rhinol. 2017 May;7(5):480-487. doi: 10.1002/alr.21917. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Establishing utility values for the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) using a crosswalk to the EuroQol-five-dimensional questionnaire-three-level version (EQ-5D-3L).

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Department of Surgery, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Centre for Health Services and Policy Research, School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Division of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.



Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a common condition for which there are numerous medical and surgical treatments. The 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-22) is a patient-reported outcome measure often used with patients diagnosed with CRS. However, there are no utility values associated with the SNOT-22, limiting its use in comparative effectiveness research. The purpose of this study was to establish utilities for the SNOT-22 by mapping responses to utility values associated with the EuroQol-5-dimensional questionnaire-3-level version (EQ-5D-3L).


This study used data collected from patients diagnosed with CRS awaiting bilateral endoscopic sinus surgery in Vancouver, Canada. Study participants completed both the SNOT-22 and the EQ-5D-3L. Ordinary least squares was used for 3 models that estimated the EQ-5D-3L utility values as a function of the SNOT-22 items.


A total of 232 participants completed both the SNOT-22 and the EQ-5D-3L. As expected, there was a negative relationship between the SNOT-22 global scores and EQ-5D-3L utility values. Adjusted R2 for the 3 models ranged from 0.28 to 0.33, and root mean squared errors between 0.23 and 0.24. A nonparametric bootstrap analysis demonstrated robustness of the findings.


This study successfully developed a mapping model to associate utility values with responses to the SNOT-22. This model could be used to conduct comparative effectiveness research in CRS to evaluate the various interventions available for treating this condition.


health status; self report; sinusitis; survey; utility theory

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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