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Am J Clin Nutr. 2017 Mar;105(3):705-713. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.116.148270. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Associations of maternal macronutrient intake during pregnancy with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI.

Author information

1
Departments of Pediatrics.
2
Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, and.
3
Obstetrics and Gynecology, and.
4
Liggins Institute, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand.
5
Departments of Maternal Fetal Medicine and.
6
Duke-National University of Singapore Graduate Medical School, Singapore.
7
Pediatric Endocrinology, KK Women's and Children's Hospital, Singapore.
8
Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit and National Institute for Health Research Southampton Biomedical Research Centre, University of Southampton and University Hospital Southampton National Health Service Foundation Trust, Southampton, United Kingdom.
9
Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, and.
10
Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
11
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA; and.
12
Clinical Nutrition Research Centre, Singapore Institute for Clinical Sciences, Agency for Science, Technology and Research, Singapore; yung_seng_lee@nuhs.edu.sg ephmcff@nus.edu.sg.
13
Departments of Pediatrics, yung_seng_lee@nuhs.edu.sg ephmcff@nus.edu.sg.
14
Khoo Teck Puat-National University Children's Medical Institute, National University Health System, Singapore, Singapore.

Abstract

Background: Infant body mass index (BMI) peak characteristics and early childhood BMI are emerging markers of future obesity and cardiometabolic disease risk, but little is known about their maternal nutritional determinants.Objective: We investigated the associations of maternal macronutrient intake with infant BMI peak characteristics and childhood BMI in the Growing Up in Singapore Towards healthy Outcomes study.Design: With the use of infant BMI data from birth to age 18 mo, infant BMI peak characteristics [age (in months) and magnitude (BMIpeak; in kg/m2) at peak and prepeak velocities] were derived from subject-specific BMI curves that were fitted with the use of mixed-effects model with a natural cubic spline function. Associations of maternal macronutrient intake (assessed by using a 24-h recall during late gestation) with infant BMI peak characteristics (n = 910) and BMI z scores at ages 2, 3, and 4 y were examined with the use of multivariable linear regression.Results: Mean absolute maternal macronutrient intakes (percentages of energy) were 72 g protein (15.6%), 69 g fat (32.6%), and 238 g carbohydrate (51.8%). A 25-g (∼100-kcal) increase in maternal carbohydrate intake was associated with a 0.01/mo (95% CI: 0.0003, 0.01/mo) higher prepeak velocity and a 0.04 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.08) higher BMIpeak These associations were mainly driven by sugar intake, whereby a 25-g increment of maternal sugar intake was associated with a 0.02/mo (95% CI: 0.01, 0.03/mo) higher infant prepeak velocity and a 0.07 (95% CI: 0.01, 0.13) higher BMIpeak Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes were associated with a higher offspring BMI z score at ages 2-4 y. Maternal protein and fat intakes were not consistently associated with the studied outcomes.Conclusion: Higher maternal carbohydrate and sugar intakes are associated with unfavorable infancy BMI peak characteristics and higher early childhood BMI. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01174875.

KEYWORDS:

adiposity; carbohydrate; childhood BMI; developmental origins; growth modeling; infancy BMI peak; macronutrient; maternal diet; pregnancy diet; sugar

PMID:
28179222
DOI:
10.3945/ajcn.116.148270
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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