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J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2018 Jan;175:195-199. doi: 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2017.01.023. Epub 2017 Feb 5.

Vitamin D deficiency in mothers, neonates and children.

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Department of Applied Sciences and Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences, Abu Dhabi University, United Arab Emirates.
Department of Paediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, Kuwait. Electronic address:


Vitamin D is produced in response to the exposure of skin to sunlight through UV-B synthesis. It can also be obtained from diet and dietary supplements. Vitamin D is essential for strong bones as it helps to absorb calcium from diet. Vitamin D deficiency mainly occurs if strict vegetarian diet is followed as mostly the source of vitamin D is animal based; therefore, exposure to sunlight is restricted or having dark skin color. Low vitamin D levels results in increased possibility of gestational diabetes among pregnant women, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia in infants, and mothers may suffer bone impairment, osteoporosis, hypocalcaemia, and hypertension. Vitamin D deficiency is directly linked with severe complication in mothers and neonates, causing rickets, poor fetal growth and infantile eczema in neonates. Higher prevalence rate of vitamin D deficiency has led professionals to emphasize on development of relevant precautionary measures.


Deficiency; Hypocalcaemia; Osteoporosis; Sunlight; Vitamin D

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