Send to

Choose Destination
Hum Brain Mapp. 2017 May;38(5):2359-2369. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23522. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Network-level assessment of reward-related activation in patients with ADHD and healthy individuals.

Author information

Department of Cognitive Neuroscience, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Donders Center for Cognitive Neuroimaging, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Centre for Functional MRI of the Brain, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom.
Department of Psychiatry, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
Section of Clinical Neuropsychology, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Center, Groningen, The Netherlands.
Departments of Psychiatry and of Neuroscience and Physiology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York.
K.G. Jebsen Centre for Research on Neuropsychiatric Disorders, University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway.
Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University Centre, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.



Reward processing is a key aspect of cognitive control processes, putatively instantiated by mesolimbic and mesocortical brain circuits. Deficient signaling within these circuits has been associated with psychopathology. We applied a network discovery approach to assess specific functional networks associated with reward processing in participants with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


To describe task-related processes in terms of integrated functional networks, we applied independent component analysis (ICA) to task response maps of 60 healthy participants who performed a monetary incentive delay (MID) task. The resulting components were interpreted on the basis of their similarity with group-level task responses as well as their similarity with brain networks derived from resting state fMRI analyses. ADHD-related effects on network characteristics including functional connectivity and communication between networks were examined in an independent sample comprising 150 participants with ADHD and 48 healthy controls.


We identified 23 components to be associated with 4 large-scale functional networks: the default-mode, visual, executive control, and salience networks. The salience network showed a specific association with reward processing as well as the highest degree of within-network integration. ADHD was associated with decreased functional connectivity between the salience and executive control networks as well as with peripheral brain regions.


Reward processing as measured with the MID task involves one reward-specific and three general functional networks. Participants with ADHD exhibited alterations in connectivity of both the salience and executive control networks and associated brain regions during task performance. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2359-2369, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


ADHD; brain networks; imaging; reward processing

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center