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J Am Coll Nutr. 2017 Jan;36(1):44-56. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2016.1174091.

Vitamin D Deficiency in Pregnant Ukrainian Women: Effects of Alcohol Consumption on Vitamin D Status.

Author information

1
a Department of Nutrition , University of California, Davis , Davis , California.
2
c Department of Pediatrics , University of San Diego , La Jolla , California.
3
d Rivne Oblast Medical Diagnostic Center and OMNI-Net Center , Rivne , Ukraine.
4
e Khmelnytsky Perinatal Center and OMNI-Net Center , Khmelnytsky , Ukraine.
5
f Department of Medical Genetics , University of South Alabama , Mobile , Alabama.
6
b Department of Internal Medicine , University of California, Davis , Davis , California.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Heavy alcohol consumption can alter vitamin D status; however, the relationships between alcohol consumption and vitamin D concentrations in pregnant women have not been well studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the vitamin D status in a population of alcohol-exposed (N = 180) and low/unexposed control (N = 179) Ukrainian pregnant women.

METHODS:

Women who attended prenatal care facilities in 2 regions of Ukraine (Rivne and Khmelnytsky) for a routine prenatal visit were screened for the study. At the time of enrollment (20.4 ± 7.0 weeks of gestation), blood samples and alcohol consumption data (during a typical week around conception and the most recent 2 weeks) were collected. Vitamin D status was assessed by 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations.

RESULTS:

A high prevalence of suboptimal vitamin D status in pregnant Ukrainian women was observed. Overall, 50.1% and 33.4% of the women were classified as vitamin D deficient [25(OH)D < 20 ng/mL] or insufficient [25(OH)D ≥ 20 ng/mL and ≤30 ng/mL], respectively, based on 2011 Endocrine Society guidelines. Alcohol-exposed women had significantly lower 25(OH)D concentrations than low/unexposed women in Spring (p = 0.006) and Winter (p = 0.022). When vitamin D concentrations were grouped into sunny season (Summer + Fall) compared to not sunny season (Winter + Spring), there was a significant ethanol by season interaction (p = 0.0028), with alcohol-drinking women having lower circulating vitamin D compared to low/unexposed women in seasons of low sun availability.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data suggest that when vitamin D concentrations are generally low (e.g., during seasons of low sun availability), alcohol consumption during pregnancy has a negative impact on vitamin D status.

KEYWORDS:

25(OH)D; alcohol; pregnancy; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency

PMID:
28169608
PMCID:
PMC5478197
DOI:
10.1080/07315724.2016.1174091
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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