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Mult Scler. 2017 Dec;23(14):1864-1874. doi: 10.1177/1352458517692886. Epub 2017 Feb 7.

Gray matter trophism, cognitive impairment, and depression in patients with multiple sclerosis.

Author information

1
Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy/Department of Neuroradiology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Civic Hospital, Lugano, Switzerland.
2
Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy/Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.
3
Neuroimaging Research Unit, Institute of Experimental Neurology, Division of Neuroscience, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.
4
Department of Neurology, Neurocenter of Southern Switzerland, Civic Hospital, Lugano, Switzerland.
5
Department of Neurology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.
6
Department of Neuroradiology, San Raffaele Scientific Institute, Vita-Salute San Raffaele University, Milan, Italy.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Cognitive impairment and depression frequently affects patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the relationship between the occurrence of depression and cognitive impairment and the development of cortical atrophy has not been fully elucidated yet.

OBJECTIVES:

To investigate the association of cortical and deep gray matter (GM) volume with depression and cognitive impairment in MS.

METHODS:

Three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted scans were obtained from 126 MS patients and 59 matched healthy controls. Cognitive impairment was assessed using the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests and depression with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Using FreeSurfer and FIRST software, we assessed cortical thickness (CTh) and deep GM volumetry. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) variables explaining depression and cognitive impairment were investigated using factorial and classification analysis. Multivariate regression models correlated GM abnormalities with symptoms severity.

RESULTS:

Compared with controls, MS patients exhibited widespread bilateral cortical thinning involving all brain lobes. Depressed MS showed selective CTh decrease in fronto-temporal regions, whereas cognitive impairment MS exhibited widespread fronto-parietal cortical and subcortical GM atrophy. Frontal cortical thinning was the best predictor of depression ( C-statistic = 0.7), whereas thinning of the right precuneus and high T2 lesion volume best predicted cognitive impairment ( C-statistic = 0.8). MADRS severity correlated with right entorhinal cortex thinning, whereas cognitive impairment severity correlated with left entorhinal and thalamus atrophy.

CONCLUSION:

MS-related depression is linked to circumscribed CTh changes in areas deputed to emotional behavior, whereas cognitive impairment is correlated with cortical and subcortical GM atrophy of circuits involved in cognition.

KEYWORDS:

Multiple sclerosis; cognitive impairment; depression; gray matter; trophism

PMID:
28169581
DOI:
10.1177/1352458517692886
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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