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J Magn Reson Imaging. 2017 Aug;46(2):323-337. doi: 10.1002/jmri.25647. Epub 2017 Feb 6.

MRI assessment of bone structure and microarchitecture.

Author information

1
Department of Radiology, Center for Biomedical Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.
2
Department of Radiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
3
Osteoporosis Center, Hospital for Joint Diseases, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, USA.

Abstract

Osteoporosis is a disease of weak bone and increased fracture risk caused by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue. The standard-of-care test used to diagnose osteoporosis, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) estimation of areal bone mineral density (BMD), has limitations as a tool to identify patients at risk for fracture and as a tool to monitor therapy response. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of bone structure and microarchitecture has been proposed as another method to assess bone quality and fracture risk in vivo. MRI is advantageous because it is noninvasive, does not require ionizing radiation, and can evaluate both cortical and trabecular bone. In this review article, we summarize and discuss research progress on MRI of bone structure and microarchitecture over the last decade, focusing on in vivo translational studies. Single-center, in vivo studies have provided some evidence for the added value of MRI as a biomarker of fracture risk or treatment response. Larger, prospective, multicenter studies are needed in the future to validate the results of these initial translational studies.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

5 Technical Efficacy: Stage 5 J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2017;46:323-337.

KEYWORDS:

bone mineral density (BMD); bone quality; dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA); finite element analysis (FEA); fragility fractures; osteoporosis

PMID:
28165650
PMCID:
PMC5690546
DOI:
10.1002/jmri.25647
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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