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Cardiovasc Hematol Agents Med Chem. 2017 Nov 8;15(1):17-22. doi: 10.2174/1871525715666170203114632.

Pernicious Anemia: Fundamental and Practical Aspects in Diagnosis.

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The Brooklyn Hospital Center, Brooklyn, New York, United States.
Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center, Lubbock, TX, United States.
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, United States.
The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX 77030, United States.



Pernicious Anemia (PA), the most common cause of cobalamin deficiency anemia worldwide, is an autoimmune disease of multifactorial etiologies involving complex environmental and immunological factors. Although it was first reported by Addison in 1849 with subsequent advances in understanding of pathogenesis and molecular biology, diagnosis of PA is still challenging for clinicians because of its complexity and diverse clinical presentations.


Herein, we provide an overview of PA, mainly focusing on its scientific and practical aspects in diagnosis. We also discuss the limitations of currently available diagnostic tools for the evaluation of cobalamin deficiency and PA.


Pernicious anemia; cobalamia deficiency; diagnostic challenges; fundamental aspects; pathophysiology; practical approach

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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