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Obes Rev. 2017 Feb;18 Suppl 1:40-49. doi: 10.1111/obr.12507.

The effect of exercise on non-exercise physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults.

Author information

1
Division of Endocrinology, Metabolism and Diabetes, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.
2
Division of Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Colorado Anschutz Medical Campus, Aurora, CO, USA.

Abstract

It is widely assumed that structured exercise causes an additive increase in physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and total daily energy expenditure (TDEE). However, the common observation that exercise often leads to a less than expected decrease in body weight, without changes in energy intake, suggests that some compensatory behavioral adaptations occur. A small number of human studies have shown that adoption of structured exercise can lead to decreases in PAEE, which is often interpreted as a decrease in physical activity (PA) behavior. An even smaller number of studies have objectively measured PA, and with inconsistent results. In animals, high levels of imposed PA induce compensatory changes in some components of TDEE. Recent human cohort studies also provide evidence that in those at the highest levels of PA, TDEE is similar when compared to less physically active groups. The objective of this review is to summarize the effects of structured exercise training on PA, sedentary behavior, PAEE and TDEE. Using models from ecological studies in animals and observational data in humans, an alternative model of TDEE in humans is proposed. This model may serve as a framework to investigate the complex and dynamic regulation of human energy budgets.

KEYWORDS:

Basal metabolism; energy metabolism; exercise physiology; humans

PMID:
28164451
PMCID:
PMC5388457
DOI:
10.1111/obr.12507
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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