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Int J Infect Dis. 2017 Mar;56:221-228. doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2017.01.028. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy for infectious diseases: learning from the cancer paradigm.

Author information

1
Division of Therapeutic Immunology (TIM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
2
Division of Therapeutic Immunology (TIM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (CAST), Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
3
Division of Therapeutic Immunology (TIM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Neurosurgery, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
4
Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, and NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, UCL Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, London, UK.
5
Division of Therapeutic Immunology (TIM), Department of Laboratory Medicine (LABMED), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Centre for Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation (CAST), Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden. Electronic address: markus.maeurer@ki.se.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Immune checkpoint pathways regulate optimal host immune responses against transformed cells, induce immunological memory, and limit tissue pathology. Conversely, aberrant immune checkpoint activity signifies a poor prognosis in cancer and infectious diseases. Host-directed therapy (HDT) via immune checkpoint blockade has revolutionized cancer treatment with therapeutic implications for chronic infections, thus laying the foundation for this review.

METHODS:

Online literature searches were performed via PubMed, PubMed Central, and Google using the keywords "immune checkpoint inhibition"; "host-directed therapy"; "T cell exhaustion"; "cancer immunotherapy"; "anti-PD-1 therapy"; "anti-PD-L1 therapy"; "chronic infections"; "antigen-specific cells"; "tuberculosis"; "malaria"; "viral infections"; "human immunodeficiency virus"; "hepatitis B virus"; "hepatitis C virus"; "cytomegalovirus" and "Epstein-Barr virus". Search results were filtered based on relevance to the topics covered in this review.

RESULTS:

The use of monoclonal antibodies directed against the antigen-experienced T-cell marker programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 in the context of chronic infectious diseases is reviewed. The potential pitfalls and precautions, based on clinical experience from treating patients with cancer with PD-1/PD-L1 pathway inhibitors, are also described.

CONCLUSIONS:

Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy holds promise as adjunctive therapy for chronic infectious diseases such as tuberculosis and HIV, and must therefore be tested in randomized clinical trials.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-PD-1; Anti-PD-L1; Cancer; Host-directed therapy; Infectious disease; T-cells

PMID:
28163164
DOI:
10.1016/j.ijid.2017.01.028
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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