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Pediatr Cardiol. 2017 Apr;38(4):691-699. doi: 10.1007/s00246-016-1567-4. Epub 2017 Feb 4.

Alteration of Cardiac Deformation in Acute Rejection in Pediatric Heart Transplant Recipients.

Author information

1
Pediatric Cardiology, Children's Heart Center of El Paso, El Paso, TX, USA.
2
Division of Critical Care and Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA.
3
Division of Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Colorado, Aurora, CO, USA.
4
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, 81 N. Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84113, USA.
5
Department of Pathology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, USA.
6
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, University of Utah, 81 N. Mario Capecchi Drive, Salt Lake City, UT, 84113, USA. Shaji.Menon@hsc.utah.edu.

Abstract

The objective of this study is to assess changes in cardiac deformation during acute cellular- and antibody-mediated rejection in pediatric HT recipients. Pediatric HT recipients aged ≤18 years with at least one episode of biopsy-diagnosed rejection from 2006 to 2013 were included. Left ventricular systolic S (SS) and SR (SSr) data were acquired using 2D speckle tracking on echocardiograms obtained within 12 h of right ventricular endomyocardial biopsy. A mixed effect model was used to compare cardiac deformation during CR (Grade ≥ 1R), AMR (pAMR ≥ 2), and mixed rejection (CR and AMR positive) versus no rejection (Grade 0R and pAMR 0 or 1). A total of 20 subjects (10 males, 50%) with 71 rejection events (CR 35, 49%; AMR 21, 30% and mixed 15, 21%) met inclusion criteria. The median time from HT to first biopsy used for analysis was 5 months (IQR 0.25-192 months). Average LV longitudinal SS and SSr were reduced significantly during rejection (SS: -17.2 ± 3.4% vs. -10.7 ± 4.5%, p < 0.001 and SSr: -1.2 ± 0.2 s- 1 vs. -0.9 ± 0.3 s- 1; p < 0.001) and in all rejection types. Average LV short-axis radial SS was reduced only in CR compared to no rejection (p = 0.04), while average LV circumferential SS and SSr were reduced significantly in AMR compared to CR (SS: 18.9 ± 4.2% vs. 20.8 ± 8.8%, p = 0.03 and SSr: 1.35 ± 0.8 s- 1 vs. 1.54 ± 0.9 s- 1; p = 0.03). In pediatric HT recipients, LV longitudinal SS and SSr were reduced in all rejection types, while LV radial SS was reduced only in CR. LV circumferential SS and SSr further differentiated between CR and AMR with a significant reduction seen in AMR as compared to CR. This novel finding suggests mechanistic differences between AMR- and CR-induced myocardial injury which may be useful in non-invasively predicting the type of rejection in pediatric HT recipients.

KEYWORDS:

Pediatric heart transplant; Rejection; Systolic strain; Systolic strain rate

PMID:
28161809
DOI:
10.1007/s00246-016-1567-4
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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