Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Brain Behav Immun. 2017 May;62:212-218. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2017.01.021. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Peripheral inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder: Case-controlled study.

Author information

1
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, United Kingdom. Electronic address: r.hou@soton.ac.uk.
2
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, United Kingdom; Department of Psychology, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
3
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
4
Medical Research Council Lifecourse Epidemiology Unit, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
5
Biological Sciences, University of Southampton, United Kingdom.
6
Clinical and Experimental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Southampton, United Kingdom; University Department of Psychiatry and Mental Health, University of Cape Town, South Africa.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Previous investigations have demonstrated that major depression is associated with particular patterns of cytokine signalling. The primary aim of this study was to examine peripheral pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and immune balance in Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD).

METHODS:

A case-controlled cross-sectional study design was employed: 54 patients with GAD and 64 healthy controls were recruited. Participants completed self-report measures of anxiety and depression. Two pro-inflammatory and two anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured using multiplex technology.

RESULTS:

Case-control logistic regression analyses revealed significant differences in serum levels of IL-10, TNF-α, and IFN-γ between GAD and control groups after adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, smoking and alcohol consumption: these group differences were independent of the presence or degree of depression. Comparison of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios indicated that there were significantly higher ratios of TNF-α/IL10, TNF-α/IL4, IFN-γ/IL10, and IFN-γ/IL4 in the GAD group compared to the control group.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study is the first to investigate both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and their balance in patients with GAD in comparison to healthy controls. The findings indicate a relatively increased pro-inflammatory response and decreased anti-inflammatory response and provide the first demonstration of an altered cytokine balance in GAD. Serum cytokine levels in GAD were independent of the presence of depression.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-inflammatory cytokine; Cytokine ratios; Generalised Anxiety Disorder; Inflammation; Pro-inflammatory cytokine

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center