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Laryngoscope. 2017 Aug;127(8):E283-E290. doi: 10.1002/lary.26458. Epub 2017 Feb 3.

Tympanomastoid cholesterol granulomas: Immunohistochemical evaluation of angiogenesis.

Author information

1
Sensory Organs Department.
2
Radiological, Oncological and Pathological Department, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS:

This study investigates the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and CD34 in patients treated for middle ear and mastoid cholesterol granulomas to evaluate the angiogenesis and vascularization of this type of lesion. A correlation between the immunohistochemical data and the radiological and intraoperative evidence of temporal bone marrow invasion and blood source connection was performed to validate this hypothesis.

STUDY DESIGN:

Retrospective study.

METHODS:

Immunohistochemical expression of VEGF and CD34 in a group of 16 patients surgically treated for cholesterol granuloma was examined. Middle ear cholesteatomas with normal middle ear mucosa and external auditory canal skin were used as the control groups. The radiological and intraoperative features of cholesterol granulomas were also examined.

RESULTS:

In endothelial cells, there was an increased expression of angiogenetic growth factor receptors in all the cholesterol granulomas in this study. The quantitative analysis of VEGF showed a mean value of 37.5, whereas the CD34 quantitative analysis gave a mean value of 6.8. Seven patients presented radiological or intraoperative evidence of bone marrow invasion, hematopoietic potentialities, or blood source connections that might support the bleeding theory. In all of these cases there was computed tomography or intraoperative evidence of bone erosion of the middle ear and/or temporal bone structures. The mean values of VEGF and CD34 were 41.1 and 7.7, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

High values of VEGF and CD34 are present in patients with cholesterol granulomas. Upregulation of VEGF and CD34 is indicative of a remarkable angiogenesis and a widespread vascular concentration in cholesterol granulomas.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

3b. Laryngoscope, 127:E283-E290, 2017.

KEYWORDS:

CD34; Cholesterol granuloma; exposed marrow theory; obstruction vacuum theory; vascular endothelial growth factor

PMID:
28158903
DOI:
10.1002/lary.26458
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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