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AIDS Behav. 2017 Aug;21(8):2372-2380. doi: 10.1007/s10461-017-1713-x.

What Prevents Central Asian Migrant Workers from Accessing HIV Testing? Implications for Increasing HIV Testing Uptake in Kazakhstan.

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HIV Center, Division of Gender, Sexuality, & Health, New York State Psychiatric Institute and Columbia University Medical Center, 1051 Riverside Drive, Unit 15, New York, NY, 10032, USA.
Social Intervention Group, School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.
Columbia University Global Health Research Center of Central Asia, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
Social Intervention Group, School of Social Work, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA.


Several barriers prevent key populations, such as migrant workers, from accessing HIV testing. Using data from a cross-sectional study among Central Asian migrant workers (n = 623) in Kazakhstan, we examined factors associated with HIV testing. Overall, 48% of participants had ever received an HIV test. Having temporary registration (AOR 1.69; (95% CI [1.12-2.56]), having an employment contract (AOR 2.59; (95% CI [1.58-4.23]), being able to afford health care services (AOR 3.61; (95% CI [1.86-7.03]) having a medical check-up in the past 12 months (AOR 1.85; 95% CI [1.18-2.89]), and having a regular doctor (AOR 2.37; 95% CI [1.20-4.70]) were associated with having an HIV test. HIV testing uptake among migrants in Kazakhstan falls far short of UNAIDS 90-90-90 goals. Intervention strategies to increase HIV testing among this population may include initiatives that focus on improving outreach to undocumented migrants, making health care services more affordable, and linking migrants to health care.


HIV testing; Kazakhstan; Migrants; Structural and individual barriers

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