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Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2017 Apr 1;312(4):G367-G373. doi: 10.1152/ajpgi.00232.2016. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Involvement of gut microbiota in association between GLP-1/GLP-1 receptor expression and gastrointestinal motility.

Author information

1
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; and.
2
Department of Digestive Diseases, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, Tianjin, People's Republic of China.
3
Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Internal Medicine, Hyogo College of Medicine, Nishinomiya, Japan; and hfukui@hyo-med.ac.jp.

Abstract

The microbiota in the gut is known to play a pivotal role in host physiology by interacting with the immune and neuroendocrine systems in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues. Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), a gut hormone, is involved in metabolism as well as GI motility. We examined how gut microbiota affects the link between GLP-1/GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) expression and motility of the GI tract. Germ-free (GF) mice (6 wk old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, and then after fecal transplantation (FT) GI tissues were obtained from the GF mice at various time points. The expression of GLP-1 and its receptor was examined by immunohistochemistry, and gastrointestinal transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution. GLP-1 was expressed in endocrine cells in the colonic mucosa, and GLP-1R was expressed in myenteric neural cells throughout the GI wall. GLP-1R-positive cells throughout the GI wall were significantly fewer in GF mice with FT than in GF mice without gut microbiota reconstitution. GITT was significantly shorter in GF mice with FT than in control GF mice without FT and correlated with the number of GLP-1R-positive cells throughout the GI wall. GITT was significantly longer in GF control mice than in SPF mice. When those mice were treated with GLP-1 agonist extendin4, GITT was significantly longer in the GF mice. The gut microbiota may accelerate or at least modify GI motility while suppressing GLP-1R expression in myenteric neural cells throughout the GI tract.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The gut microbiota has been intensively studied, because it plays a pivotal role in various aspects of host physiology. On the other hand, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) plays important roles in metabolism as well as gastrointestinal motility. In the present study, we have suggested that the gut microbiota accelerates gastrointestinal motility while suppressing the expression of GLP-1 receptor in myenteric neural cells throughout the gastrointestinal tract. We believe that this article is very timely and suggestive work.

KEYWORDS:

GLP-1; GLP-1 receptor; gastrointestinal tract; microbiota; motility

PMID:
28154011
DOI:
10.1152/ajpgi.00232.2016
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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