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BMC Nephrol. 2017 Feb 2;18(1):47. doi: 10.1186/s12882-017-0468-y.

Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio with incidence of cardiovascular diseases and mortality in chinese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus - a population-based retrospective cohort study.

Author information

1
Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, 3/F Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong. cfsc@hku.hk.
2
Department of Family Medicine and Primary Care, the University of Hong Kong, 3/F Ap Lei Chau Clinic, 161 Main Street, Ap Lei Chau, Hong Kong.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) are renal markers associated with risks of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and all-cause mortality in diabetic patients. This study aims to quantify such risks in Chinese diabetic patients based on eGFR and UACR.

METHODS:

This was a territory-wide retrospective cohort study on primary care diabetic patients with documented eGFR and UACR but without baseline CVD in 2008/2009. They were followed up till 2013 on CVD events and mortality. Associations between eGFR/UACR and incidence of CVD/mortality were evaluated by multivariable Cox proportional models adjusted with socio-demographic and clinical characteristics.

RESULTS:

The data of 66,311 patients who had valid baseline eGFR and UACR values were analysed. The risks of CVD events and mortality increased exponentially with the decrease in eGFR, with a hazard ratio (HR) increasing from 1.63 to 4.55 for CVD, and from 1.70 to 9.49 for mortality, associated with Stage 3 to 5 CKD, compared to Stage 1 CKD. UACR showed a positive linear association with CVD events and mortality. Microalbuminuria was associated with a HR of 1.58 and 2.08 for CVD and mortality in male (1.48 and 1.79 for female), respectively, compared to no microalbuminuria. Male patients with UACR 1-1.4 mg/mmol and eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2) had a HR of 1.25 (1.43) for CVD. Female patients with UACR 2.5-3.4 mg/ml and eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2 (60-89 ml/min/1.73 m2) had a HR of 1.45 (1.65) for CVD.

CONCLUSIONS:

Risks of CVD events and mortality increased exponentially with eGFR drop, while UACR showed positive predictive linear relationships, and the risks started even in high-normal albuminuria. UACR-based HR was further modified according to eGFR level, with risk progressed with CKD stage. Combining eGFR and UACR level was more accurate in predicting risk of CVD/mortality. The findings call for more aggressive screening and intervention of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular diseases; Diabetes mellitus; Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR); Mortality; Primary care; Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR)

PMID:
28152985
PMCID:
PMC5290675
DOI:
10.1186/s12882-017-0468-y
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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