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Psychiatry Res. 2017 Mar;249:343-348. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2017.01.044. Epub 2017 Jan 19.

Cross-cultural adaptation and psychometric properties of the Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) in Japanese high school students.

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School of Health and Medical Sciences, Seton Hall University, United States of America.
Department of Education, Seoul National University, Republic of Korea.
National Information Society Agency, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychiatry, SMG-SNU Boramae Medical Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Republic of Korea.
Department of Psychology, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong.
Department of Psychology, Asia University, Taiwan.
Department of Children and Women's Health, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, Japan. Electronic address:


The Korean Scale for Internet Addiction (K-Scale) was developed in Korea for assessing addictive internet behaviors. This study aims to adopt K-Scale and examine its psychometric properties in Japanese adolescents. In 2014, 589 (36.0% boys) high school students (Grade 10-12) from Japan completed a survey, including items of Japanese versions of K-Scale and Smartphone Scale for Smartphone Addiction (S-Scale). Model fit indices of the original four-factor structure, three-factor structure obtained from exploratory factor analysis, and improved two-factor structure of K-Scale were computed using confirmatory factor analysis, with internal reliability of included items reported. The convergent validity of K-Scale was tested against self-rated internet addiction, and S-Scale using multiple regression models. The results showed that a second-order two-factor 13-item structure was the most parsimonious model (NFI=0.919, NNFI=0.935, CFI=0.949, and RMSEA=0.05) with good internal reliability (Cronbach's alpha=0.87). The two factors revealed were "Disturbance of Adaptation and Life Orientation" and "Withdrawal and Tolerance". Moreover, the correlation between internet user classifications defined by K-Scale and self-rating was significant. K-Scale total score was significantly and positively associated with S-Scale total (adjusted R2=0.440) and subscale scores (adjusted R2=0.439). In conclusion, K-Scale is a valid and reliable assessment scale of internet addiction for Japanese high school students after modifications.


Adolescents; Internet Addiction; Smartphone Addiction

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