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Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces. 2017 Apr 1;152:385-392. doi: 10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.01.043. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

A novel ionic amphiphilic chitosan derivative as a stabilizer of nanoemulsions: Improvement of antimicrobial activity of Cymbopogon citratus essential oil.

Author information

1
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Vle Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy; Center for Health Technology (CHT), University of Pavia, Via A. Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy. Electronic address: cbonferoni@unipv.it.
2
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Vle Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy; Center for Health Technology (CHT), University of Pavia, Via A. Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia, Italy.
3
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Sassari, V.le San Pietro 43/C, 07100, Sassari, Italy.
4
Smart Materials Group, Nanophysics Department, Italian Institute of Technology (IIT), Via Morego 30, 16163 Genoa, Italy.
5
Department of Drug Sciences, University of Pavia, Vle Taramelli 12, 27100 Pavia, Italy.

Abstract

Amphiphilic chitosans have been recently proposed to improve delivery of poorly soluble drugs. In the present paper a derivative obtained by ionic interaction between chitosan and oleic acid was for the first time studied to physically stabilize o/w nanoemulsions of an antimicrobial essential oil, Cymbopogon citratus (Lemongrass), in a low energy and mild conditions emulsification process. The novel combination of spontaneous emulsification process with chitosan oleate amphiphilic properties resulted in a stable dispersion of a few hundred nanometer droplets. Positive zeta potential confirmed the presence of a chitosan shell around the oil droplets, which is responsible for the nanoemulsion physical stabilization and for the maintenance of chitosan bioactive properties, such as mucoadhesion. Cytotoxicity test was performed on four different cell lines (HEp-2, Caco-2, WKD and McCoy cells) showing biocompatibility of the system. The maintenance and in some cases even a clear improvement in the essential oil antimicrobial activity towards nine bacterial and ten fungal strains, all of clinical relevance was verified for Lemongrass nanoemulsion.

KEYWORDS:

Amphiphilic chitosan; Antimicrobial essential oil; Lemongrass oil; Mucoadhesion; Nanoemulsions; Oleic acid

PMID:
28152462
DOI:
10.1016/j.colsurfb.2017.01.043
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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