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Psychiatry Res. 2017 Apr;250:113-120. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.039. Epub 2016 Dec 27.

Insulin resistance, atherogenicity, and iron metabolism in multiple sclerosis with and without depression: Associations with inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and uric acid.

Author information

1
Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil.
2
Department of Pathology, Clinical Analysis, and Toxicology, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
3
Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil; Outpatient Clinic for Multiple Sclerosis, University Hospital, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
4
Medicine School, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
5
Outpatient Clinic for Multiple Sclerosis, University Hospital, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil; Department of Clinical Medicine, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.
6
Health Sciences Postgraduate Program, Health Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Londrina, Parana, Brazil; Department of Psychiatry, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand; Impact Strategic Research Center, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia; Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Plovdiv, Plovdiv, Bulgaria; Revitalis, Waalre, The Netherlands. Electronic address: dr.michaelmaes@hotmail.com.

Abstract

Depression is accompanied by metabolic disorders in iron metabolism, lipoproteins, and insulin resistance. We measured plasma levels of ferritin, iron, lipids, insulin, and glucose and computed the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA2IR) and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in MS patients with and without depression and healthy controls. Explanatory variables were serum uric acid, interleukin (IL)-6, lipid hydroperoxides (CL-LOOH), albumin, and C-reactive protein (CRP). Depression was assessed using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), neurological disability using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), and disease progression using ∆EDSS over five years earlier. HOMA2IR and insulin were predicted by diagnosis (increased in MS), age and body mass index (BMI); AIP by diagnosis, sex, BMI, CRP, and uric acid; triglycerides by diagnosis (higher in MS without depression), age, BMI and uric acid; ferritin by diagnosis (higher in MS), sex, CRP, and albumin; and iron by albumin. The HADS score was significantly predicted by ∆EDSS, gastro-intestinal symptoms, iron (inverse), and age. MS is characterized by significantly increased insulin resistance, which is determined by increased insulin levels; and increased ferritin, a biomarker of inflammation. Depression in MS is not associated with increased insulin resistance and atherogenicity but with lowered iron.

KEYWORDS:

Atherogenicity; Depression; IL-6; Immune; Inflammation; Insulin resistance; Metabolism; Oxidative

PMID:
28152396
DOI:
10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.039
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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