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J Nutr. 2017 Mar;147(3):439-444. doi: 10.3945/jn.116.242958. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

Dietary Protein Modifies the Effect of the MC4R Genotype on 2-Year Changes in Appetite and Food Craving: The POUNDS Lost Trial.

Author information

1
Epidemiology Domain, Saw Swee Hock School of Public Health, and.
2
Department of Medicine, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.
3
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA.
4
Nutritional Epidemiology Program, Jean Mayer USDA Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA.
5
Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, LA.
6
School of Medicine, Tufts University, Boston, MA.
7
Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, MA; nhlqi@channing.harvard.edu.
8
Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA; and.
9
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.

Abstract

Background: The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) plays a pivotal role in the regulation of appetite and eating behavior. Variants in the MC4R gene have been related to appetite and obesity.Objective: We aimed to examine whether weight-loss diets modified the effect of the "obesity-predisposing" MC4R genotype on appetite-related measures in a randomized controlled trial.Methods: A total of 811 overweight and obese subjects [25 ≤ body mass index (BMI; kg/m2) ≤ 40] aged 30-70 y were included in the 2-y POUNDS Lost (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies) trial. We genotyped MC4R rs7227255 in 735 overweight adults and assessed appetite-related characteristics, including craving, fullness, hunger, and prospective consumption, as well as a composite appetite score. We examined the effects of the genotype-by-weight-loss diet intervention interaction on appetite variables by using general linear models in both the whole population and in white participants only.Results: We found that dietary protein intake (low compared with high: 15% of energy compared with 25% of energy, respectively) significantly modified MC4R genetic effects on changes in appetite score and craving (P-interaction = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively) at 2 y, after adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, baseline BMI, weight change, and baseline perspective phenotype. The obesity-predisposing A allele was associated with a greater increase in overall appetite score (β = 0.10, P = 0.05) and craving (β = 0.13, P = 0.008) compared with the non-A allele among participants who consumed a high-protein diet. MC4R genotype did not modify the effects of fat or carbohydrate intakes on appetite measures. Similar interaction patterns were observed in whites.Conclusion: Our data suggest that individuals with the MC4R rs7227255 A allele rather than the non-A allele might experience greater increases in appetite and food craving when consuming a high-protein weight-loss diet. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995.

KEYWORDS:

MC4R genotype; appetite; food craving; gene-diet interaction; protein diet; weight-loss trial

PMID:
28148682
PMCID:
PMC5320402
DOI:
10.3945/jn.116.242958
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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